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MLA Format: Works Cited (Electronic Sources)

This information is based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Seventh Edition, 2009.


Electronic Sources Guidelines:

  • Electronic references have unique citation formats that may change over time. If you have a question about citations, consult your instructor.
  • Include an entry for every in-text citation and use all relevant publication information.
  • For sources from databases, identify the database. Do not include a URL.
  • For sources from websites, provide a URL only if your reader is likely to have trouble locating the source using the other elements of the citation.
    • If a URL takes more than one full line of the citation, just give the home page for the site.
    • Break long URLs across lines after a slash (/) mark if necessary.
    • Do not create hyperlinks (left click on hyperlink and choose "Remove Hyperlink").
  • Include the medium (e.g., Web). For Web sources, also indicate the retrieval date.
  • Use n.d. if the source has no date. Use n. pag. if no page numbers are given (do not use page numbers provided by your browser).  Use n.p. if no publisher is given.
  • Cite each page or document within a website separately.
  • Use a hanging indent (see examples below).
  • Maintain double spacing.

To extract relevant author and title from a typical website:

  • Author: Look for the author’s name at top or bottom of articles. If no author is identified, cite by title. Do not use the site editor (usually appears at very bottom of page).
  • Title: When confronted with several titles for a single page, choose the one that most accurately describes the content you are citing. This title may not always be the “top” title on the page.

Microsoft Office 2007 notes:

  • The basic MLA template in MS Word may not create complete, correct MLA citations. Use the formats illustrated here or in the MLA Handbook.



Article in an online scholarly journal that is also published in print:

Robertson, Claire C. “Age, Gender, and Knowledge Revolutions in Africa and the United States.” Journal  of Women’s History 12.4 (2000): 174-183. Web. 6 Aug. 2008.


Article in an online scholarly journal, published only online:

Cook, Christopher R. “A Question of Intervention: American Policymaking in Sierra Leone and the Power of Institutional Agenda Setting.” African Studies Quarterly: The Online Journal for African  Studies 10.1 (2008): n. pag. Web. 25 Aug. 2008.


Article from a library database or personal subscription service:

Vagts, Detlev F. “Military Commissions: A Concise History.” The American Journal of International Law 101.1 (2007): 35-48. JSTOR. Web. 6 Aug. 2008.


Article in an online version of a print magazine or periodical:

Hulse, Carl, and Michael D. Shear. “Democrats See Winning Strategy in Carbon Plan.” New York Times. New York Times, 9 June 2014. Web. 19 June 2014.


Professional or personal Web site:

Silva Rhetoricae. “Ethos.” Silva Rhetoricae: The Forest of Rhetoric. Brigham Young University. 26 Feb. 2007. Web. 12 May 2009.

United States Marine Corps. Marine Corps Division of Public Affairs. 2009. Web. 12 May 2009.


Weblog (“blog”) posting:

Scott, Amanda. “Message from Barack: Our Message of Change.” Obama HQ Blog. Obama Biden, 25 Aug. 2008. Web. 25 Aug. 2008.   


Posting to a news group or ListServ:

Downs, Doug. “Written-Language Disorder, Doctor’s Orders.” Writing Program Administration. Arizona State University, 12 May 2009. Web. 15 May 2009.


Online video or audio file:

Note: Mention the form (audio or video) within your paper.

“The Candidates React: Mike Huckabee.” Washington Post, 8 Jan. 2008. Web. 19 Jan. 2008.


E-mail communication:

Riddle, Prentiss. “Re: Ballor.” Message to Victor Rangel-Ribeiro. 6 Aug. 2006. E-mail.


Online government publication:

Note: except the Congressional Record

United States. Office of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction. Commander’s Emergency Response Program in Iraq Funds Many Large-Scale Projects. 2008. Web. 21 Aug. 2008.      


Online map:

“Costa Rica – Maps.”, Inc., 2008. Web. 21 Aug. 2008.


Online Graphic:

Note: Base the form of your citation on the most appropriate citation model. If the source exists only online, cite as part of a Web site.

United States.  Department of Education. “Number of Private Schools, By Religious Orientation and Community Type: 1989–90 Through 2005–06.” Private School Universe Survey (PSS). Institute of Education Sciences National Center for Education Statistics, 2006. Web. 27 Aug. 2008.