Citation

APA Format: References

This information is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition, 2010.

 

General Guidelines:

  • Start References on a new page, continuing the running head and page number; center the word References at the top
  • Include the sources cited in the text, except for interviews and other non-retrievable data
  • Alphabetize by the first word of the reference (the last name of the first author, or the first significant word of a corporate author, or the first significant word of the title if the work has no author). Use initials only for author’s first and middle names
  • Each entry also includes the year of publication, title, and publishing information
  • APA uses a hanging indent: The first line of each reference aligns with the margin; subsequent lines are indented

Conventions:

  • Use periods between elements and at the citation end (except after website URLs)
  • Do not use quotation marks around article titles
  • Use commas between the names of multiple authors and the ampersand (&) before the last author’s name
  • Capitalize only the first word (and the first word after a colon) of the titles of articles and books
  • Capitalize all proper names and periodical titles
  • If it is available, include a journal issue number (in parentheses) after the volume number
  • Maintain double-spacing

Microsoft Office 2007 notes:

  • The basic APA template in Office 2007 does not include a field for journal volume and issue number; add these manually or click the box for “Show All Bibliography Fields” for a complete template. Volume number and issue number (if available) are necessary when citing journal articles
  • Change the title of the page that lists sources to References. (It should not be Bibliography)

 

EXAMPLES

Book:

Porth, C. (2005). Pathophysiology: Concepts of altered health states. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott,

Williams and Wilkins.

 

Journal article:

Gupta, A. K., & Govindajaran, V. (2000). Managing global expansion:  A conceptual framework.

Business Horizons43(2), 45-54.

 

Government publication:

United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (2002). Standard plan for the review of a reclamation

plan for mill tailings sites under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act.

Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

 

Newspaper article:

French, H. W., & Wong, E. (2008, May 16). In departure, China invites outside help. The New York

Times, p. A1.

 

Article or chapter in an edited book:

Enslin, P., & Pendlebury, S. (2002). Representation, identification and trust: Towards an ethics of

educational research. In M. McNamee & D. Bridges (Eds.), The ethics of educational research (pp.

361-370). Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishing.

 

DVD:

Horberg, W., Parkes, W. (Producers), & Forster, M. (Director). (2007). The kite runner [DVD]. United

States: Dreamworks Video.

 

Unsigned entry in a reference book:

Acoustic. (1989). In J. Simpson (Ed.), The Oxford English dictionary (2nd ed.,Vol. 1, p. 112). New York,

NY: Oxford University Press.

 

Review of a book:

Felten, P. (2002). Taking Haiti seriously [Review of the book Taking Haiti: Military occupation and the

culture of U.S. imperialism, 1915-1940 by M. Renda]. Reviews in American History, 30(3), 471-476.

 

Sample References page:

 

SHORTENED TITLE                                                                                                             Page number                                                                                                                        

References

Acoustic. (1989). In J. Simpson (Ed.), The Oxford English dictionary (2nd ed., Vol. 1, p. 112). New York, NY:

Oxford University Press.

Enslin, P., & Pendlebury, S. (2002). Representation, identification and trust: Towards an ethics of educational

research.

In M. McNamee and D. Bridges (Eds.), The ethics of educational research (pp. 361-370). Oxford, England:

Blackwell Publishing.

Felten, P. (2002). Taking Haiti seriously [Review of the book Taking Haiti: Military occupation and the culture

of U.S. imperialism, 1915-1940 by M. Renda]. Reviews in American History, 30(3), 471-476.

French, H. W., & Wong, E. (2008, May 16). In departure, China invites outside help. The New York Times,

p. A1. 

Gupta, A. K., & Govindajaran, V. (2000). Managing global expansion: A conceptual framework. Business

Horizons, 43(2), 45-54.

Horberg, W., Parkes, W. (Producers), & Forster, M. (Director). (2007). The kite runner [DVD]. United States:

Dreamworks Video.

Porth, C. (2005). Pathophysiology: Concepts of altered health states. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams

and Wilkins.

United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (2002). Standard plan for the review of a reclamation plan for

mill tailings sites under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Washington, DC: U.S.

Government Printing Office.