Photoshop basic shortcuts you'll use on most images[ctrl S][cmd S] Save
Move Tool (V)
This tool is the most used tool in Photoshop. Learning this shortcut quickly will help you move images around in your layers. Holding the [Shift] key during movement will make it so you can only move vertically or horizontally.
Quick Selection Tool (W)
Can be a vital tool when trying to quickly select an area of your image with one click. The other tool is the magic wand, is in my opinion much more useful. This will let you select a certain color range in your image. The option bar will let you manipulate the tolerance for a smaller or broader color range.
Spot Healing Brush Tool (M)
You can use this tool to repair scratches on images that were scanned in. Also the Healing Brush which is more precise. You can choose your healing size, then holding the [Alt][Opt] key, you select an area of your image. Let go of the[Alt] [Opt] key and draw over the affected area. It basically copies the info from the first area to the second, in the form of the Brush tool. Only, at the end, it averages the information, so it blends.
History Brush Tool (H)
Have you made a mistake a long time ago in your creation, and want the original image back? Use this tool and it will bring back the original state of the layer.
Blur Tool (R)
Blur tool, wonder what it does? OH it blurs things! Yup, used just like the brush tool, click and drag where ever you want something blurred.
Horizontal Type Tool (T)
Insert Text into an image. Change font, color, and size all within a few clicks. Just click and start trying, it is pretty straight forward.
Hand Tool (T)
Used to move the view of your picture if you are zoomed in too far in the image, but still want to be that close.
Rectangular Marquee Tool (M)
The marquee tool is used to make selections in your image. There are four different kinds of marquee tools Elliptical, Single Row, Single Column, and the Rectangle tool being used on the toolbar. By selecting using this tool, you may change this area of your image with other tools or actions. Holding the [alt] [opt] while making a selection will set the center of the marquee to where you started. By holding the [Shift] key while dragging, it will limit your selection to being a perfect square.
Crop Tool (C)
Used just like any other program, your image will be cropped to the size of the box; deleting permanently everything outside of the box. Has two other functions the slice(K) and slice select tool. These are used for splitting an image into smaller images on the same layer, without deleting the rest of the image much like a puzzle.
Brush Tool (B)
The Brush Tool is quite basic. You choose your size, color, and hardness(edge of brush is a lighter shade than middle) and draw. The [Shift] key will limit your movements to only vertical or horizontal.
Eraser Tool (E)
If you haven't guessed it yet, this tool will erase whatever you go over. If you’re on a Layer, it will erase the information transparent. If you're on the background layer(which you should never do), it erases with whatever secondary color you have selected.
Dodge Tool (O)
Don't know why is is called Dodge Tool when it will lighten whichever area is selected(dark gray becomes light gray). Works on all colors except absolute black or white.
Path Selection Tool (A)
Remember in the Pen tool when I was talking about paths? Well this is where you select the path you want, more of an advanced tool. No need to worry about it as a beginner.
The top box shows your Foreground color, while the box behind it shows your background color. Clicking on a box will bring up the color palette.
Lasso Tool (L)
Is used to make more precise selections than the Rectangle Marquee tool. It has three options Polygonal Lasso, Magnetic Lasso, and Lasso. Polygonal is used by clicking and making anchor points. Magnetic tries to find the area you want selected by color difference. It is very useful when drastic color differences are apparent. The Lasso tool is used like a pencil to draw whichever shape you want selected with one click. To close any of the Lassos simple go to the beginning of the selection, or hold the [ctrl] key, a small circle will appear and click.
Eye Dropper Tool (I)
Can't find the exact color you are looking for? Use this tool to click on the color you want in any image, and now you have that exact color.
Clone Stamp Tool (S)
Very similar to the Healing Brush mentioned above. The only difference is photoshop does not use special information to blend the clone after it is placed. It is a tricky tool that when learned how to use properly is nice to use. The best way to learn which tool to use is to just experiment with them.
Gradient Tool (G)
This tool isn't used much for beginners, but it will let you blend colors together by dragging the mouse in which ever direction you want the colors to go.
Pen Tool (P)
This tool is used to create paths. You outline wherever you want selected, and unlike the Selection Marquee Tools it will be kept in your history for later use. This will be useful in more challenging projects. It is used by clicking to add anchor points, if you click and drag it will bend the shape adding more fluidity(Yeah it's a word).
Rectangle Tool (U)
Draws a shape of a rectangle. Also can do a rounded rectangle, ellipse, polygon, line, or a custom shape. Never really used all that much to be honest. Holding the [alt] [opt] while making a selection will set the center of the rectangle to where you started. By holding the [Shift] key while dragging, it will limit your rectangle to being a perfect square.
has all shortcuts in Photoshop (I'm a big shortcut kinda guy) Switch [alt] for [opt] when using MAC